Unlike fiction or journalistic writing, the overall structure of academic writing is formal and logical. It must be cohesive and possess a logically organized flow of ideas; this means that the various parts are connected to form a unified whole. There should be narrative links between sentences and paragraphs so the reader is able to follow your argument and all sources are properly cited. The introduction should include a description of how the rest of the paper is organized.
The conclusion offers you the opportunity to elaborate on the impact and significance of your findings. So by quoting all the necessary citations and references, I can once again urge for the urgency of situation. The conclusion also provides a place for you to persuasively and succinctly restate your research problem, given that the reader has now been presented with all the information about the topic. We can also emphasize on that whether this project help to find an important literature gap. While my concluding sentence can be, ‘We make the world we live in and we shape our environment so if today we burn the fossil fuel then tomorrow we might be fossil under the sea.’ Environmental degradation due to improper solid waste management which can crucially effect on our health can be beautifully summarized into the above lines as it embraces all the charm of this literature.
Literature review helps in finding out what kind of information already exist regarding our research topic. While it also help in identifying main methodologies and research techniques. It also provide context for our own research and show relation between previous studies of theories.
While the most necessary thing I need to accomplish with this literature review is to identify the authorities or persons who are already engaged with this research project. Another important aspect I need to accomplish is to identify the already present gaps in the literature.
Reader should finish the introduction thinking that the essay is interesting or has some sort of relevance to their lives. A good introduction is engaging; it gets the audience thinking about the topic at hand and wondering how you will be proving your argument. Good ways to convince your reader that your essay is worthwhile is to provide information that the reader might question or disagree with. Once they are thinking about the topic, and wondering why you hold your position, they are more likely to be engaged in the rest of the essay.
A good introduction is fresh, engaging, and interesting. Successful introductions don’t rely on cliches or irrelevant information to demonstrate their point. Be brief, be concise, and be engaging. These all aspects can’t be conquered until we don’t get the command over our thesis statement.
For me, composing text throughout my life have been the most fascinating part. I can look deeper into myself and bring about all my imaginations on paper. But after being more indulge in such composing activities I learnt the art of composing in pieces for a bigger project. Writing in pieces allowed me with all the necessary time to ruminate about different ways in which one single text can be composed. It tempt me to think deeper and by going deeper, I found certain connection with the topic. Writing in pieces let our bond with the topic get better like an old wine.
I always thought of myself as a person with mediocre writing skills but during this course I learnt the craft of writing which made me look things differently, even my own self. As once a mediocre writer, who can now compose such bigger projects and it’s all due to writing in pieces which allow us with the time. Writing is now more a craft to me which can be acquired but for that self believe is mandatory.
Chanchai Kanchanabhandhu, Seree Woraphong. "A Model of solid Waste Management Based Multilateral Co-operation in Semi-Urban Community." Intternational jouurnal of Environmental and science education2016, Vol. 11, no. 12, 5762-5775 (2016): 14. Accessed 22 june 2016.
Due to excessive garbage and solid waste, our environment is paying a heavy debt. Therefore, a young environmentalist like Chanchai Kanchabhandu could play their vital role in enlightening the general public about the trauma they are facing. A Doctoral Graduate in Environmental Education Program, Department of Education, Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities, Mahidol University, Thailand research fellow. While the other contributor Seree Woraphong who is Director of Ph.D. Program in Environmental Education, Department of Education, Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities, Mahidol University, Thailand. With such an immense experience about environmental condition much could be acquire from their piece of writings. It is a reliable source as it has gone through a proper channel of peer reviewing.
The source states about the Lateral cooperation concepts which finds its roots back in 1992 when first introduced by Dr. Parwase Wasi. At that time when ‘five-party co-operation’ concept reigned. So, the people from all parts plan, investigate and solve the problem. Environmental education process focuses on the promotion of attitude, behavior and value concerning maintenance, problem solution and development of the environment and life quality of human. In order to conduct this research the methodology follows questionnaires, in- depth interviews and efficiency evaluation. For this purpose different test were conducted and statistically a result was generated on favor. Its specific objectives were to 1) study the waste situation and involvements of 5774 C. KANCHANABHANDHU AND S. WORAPHONG community in waste management in Wangtaku Sub-district, Muang District, Nakhon Pathom Province; 2) develop a mode of solid waste management based on multilateral cooperation in the semi-urban community of Wangtaku Sub-district; and 3) evaluate the efficiency of the model. The idea of focus group discussion with the leaders of all parts is an interesting way to collect the knowledge as being mentioned in one of the activities.
The purpose of source is to develop a model solid waste management which should be brought to practice with other semi- urban communities. The source seems to be quite proficient as it brought upon a pristine concept of solving this long talked issue. The source is evidently pointing towards environmental degradation and clarifying the issue that how can we elucidate it. The author here is trying to put an idea of developing a model solid waste management authority but his arguments were a bit vivid yet compulsive enough.
The source exquisitely indicate the environmental concerns followed by an amazing methodology to ponder upon. The above attached source would be very valuable in the research as it gives environmental education concept but most importantly gives the concept of a Model of Solid Waste Management Based Multilateral Co-operation in Semi-urban Community.
Baseline study for Solid waste managament_Karachi. Seperate Tropical techniqal report. Karachi: United Nations (ESCAP), 2012. Accessed 13 March 2012.
It’s a baseline survey which is conducted by ESCAP and its partners which undertakes solid waste assessments in all cities. The findings from these surveys provide critical information that helps in thought provoking initiatives towards these issues. As UNESCAP is the regional development arm of United Nation for Asia and Pacific region. So, the surveys conducted through this platform are noteworthy.
The main purpose behind this survey is to determine the quantity and composition of solid waste generated from households which form the largest proportion in the solid waste. The main objectives of this study are to determine household waste storage methods, social and cultural habits towards waste hygiene and cleanliness and also the roles of household members in managing waste, segregation of waste. The source clearly expose the current solid waste management system of the city. The source quite clearly points out towards the concerned authorities, what is their role and until now and what they are doing. It also explains the generation of household solid waste materials which vary in low, average and high income areas. Therefore, it’s a source which provides statistical information over generation of waste.
This source is quite indulging as it finds its roots deep in human behavior while generation of waste in households. It can easily talk to other sources as it can be easily cited for any scholarly article because this survey is efficiently conducted on generation of solid waste materials.
All told, I think it’s a worthy source because it being quite effectively summarizing the type of solid wastes generated and especially the amount of solid wastes in respect to low income, average income and high income areas. While at the same time this survey encourages us to take some fresh initiatives like developing of new Landfill sites, source segregation should be adopted while illegal dumping of solid wastes in drains can be avoided through awareness programs. So, in a nutshell this survey exhibits the current situation of the city.
While going this process of articulating an annotated bibliography, the next move would be to conduct a face to face interview with an environmentalist who got a bit of expenditure of foreign ways of dealing with environmental problems. So, in this regards I am soon going to interview one such environmentalist who in past served in Cantonment board, Karachi. It would be kind of him to help as he saw the initiative behind this move.
By the completion of second bibliography I was aware with the ways of doing it. So as far it goes I am reviewing some scholarly articles and my interview is expected on Tuesday. While I’ve also been going through a website from last week to summarize some conclusive points. Therefore, I am on the verge of completing the annotated bibliography within due limit.
Texts can be in different forms such as sacred text, articles, research journals, essays and many more. Every test has a different tale or story tell but what intrigued me throughout my life is that how a single piece of writing can be such multi-dimensional and such imperative. With the later part of my life out of curiosity I began to inquire more and more so I began to comprehend more. It was really astonishing for me to observe that every single piece of writing is written with a part of history to support it. Out of nowhere I realized that every single text is trying to express the author’s view which make every single statement rheoretical, compulsive and strategic.
As I began to analyze more, I came to a conclusion that every piece of writing is an author’s strategy to convince people about it. Whether it be by pathos, ethos or logos. There’s always a certain hidden purpose behind every set of writing which a good reader could comprehend. There’s a certain linguistic appeal to a set of writing. As with the advent of new era, multimodal strategies are the best ways to explicate writing materials.
One of the main idea behind writing any form of text is to persuade the audience. Aristotle implies three important strategies; pathos, ethos and logos. By following these strategies a rheoretic writing comes into being. If you are trying to convince the audience on base of reputation if follows ethos. If you are trying to appeal them with their feelings or emotions then that implies pathos. While logos is based on statistical data or argument driven. So in this metamorphosis of learning more and more about the situating sources of texts. It has changed my idea of reading and especially composing of texts. Therefore, from now on the composing of every single text could be more strategic and convincing. While the approach towards any source would be more generalized by answering few simple question. For e.g. who’s the author of the source? How might political, social, religious, or economic events occurring at the same time have influenced the production of the source? And how might common beliefs or trends during this time period have influenced the production of the source? So by answering these questions, it can also influence my writing.
While going through a detail process of research, firstly I would identify one primary source to start my research with and that would be a general survey. Questionnaires would be distributed among the audience and a survey would be conducted with some particular objectives. The main objective of survey remain that whether people know the terrible situation in which they are in and how horrific it would be in future. Another objective is to know whether the audience is willing to take a stand or not and if they are to which extreme could they go to fight this evil.
This survey would be conducted on people of 3 different age groups so that’s how we can conclude the major stakeholders view over this devastating situation. Survey will revolve around the following:
Secondary sources are other than primary sources which we have access to. These are other than primary sources which explain the validity of primary sources. With the developing age of electronic media people are moving towards E media rather than other sources of media. Websites would be one of my major secondary source as the data already present on them would perfectly compliment my primary sources which would be different surveys and questionnaires session.
There are many scholarly articles written over this particular subject as how should the garbage be properly disposed of and what would be the benefits of disposing the garbage like healthier environment with less risk of disease causing factors. By going through these articles a clearer picture of healthier environment can be imagined but this need some spectacular ways of solid waste management.
By pondering over scholarly articles and by going through the websites of solid waste management of other different states which have changed fortune for themselves, a better and cheap strategy can be devised. In this regards data base access would be my first priority as it can give me a vast dimension of the required information.
Surfing is something which is usually misunderstood by our teenagers as they surf on the internet to pass their leisure time but in reality surfing is an important tool which if used adequately could enlighten our minds. So, by surfing through the social media and different websites, important data would be analyzed.
By thoroughly going through each and every aspect of the sources I would analyze my data such that it would give the idea to audience that yes, change is near. The only thing needed is stepping up to the occasion and answering all the doubts of the audience so they can be persuade in the best way possible. For doing this our sources should be robust enough.
My CRQ: How can proper disposal and management of solid waste have any impact on environmental degradation and health related issues in Karachi?
Solid waste management still remain an unsolved mystery. Billions of rupees have been spent on these management projects but yet to yield any result. Therefore, a research from gross route level should be conducted. Sources for this project should be clearly identified while the primary sources remain the core of this research.
Where we are standing right now would be the perfect question for the survey as state of mind of general public play an important role so for that purpose a general survey would carry out where the audience would be inquired. Do you think that improper disposal of garbage has been a reason for environmental degradation? After a successful survey, interviews should be the next step which would be done of the concerned authorities. Medical reports being published by the medical hospitals is an important primary source. Doctors, would be interviewed and asked about frequently found diseases find in Karachi and their growing rate. Doctor’s opinion about research topic would be the crucial part.
Due to my family background I would easily access to different hospitals and concerned authorities so we can know their take on the topic. Questionnaires would be prepared by myself which would be directly targeting the CRQ. 50 young boys should be surveyed so to see is there any sense of emergency among their answers and if they are aware with the gravity of situation.
Major stake holders would be interviewed so they could identify the core of the problem and what they have been doing up till now. There have been recently many projects in the past like ‘Give Garbage and take Gold’ in which garbage was recycled. Where are these projects and why they are not operating right now? While reports by WHO would be well appreciated and studied and compare it with past reports.